John Moore



Intro

Nuclear activity is concerning for other nation’s as well as the one involved in nuclear activity. Many people wanted to end nuclear activities because nuclear activity was unknown to people until recently. Nuclear activity involves the splitting the nucleus of an atom. Nuclear energy and nuclear bombs rely on the energy released by the nucleus being split. The devastation caused by the 2 Atomic bombs dropped on Japan showed just how dangerous nuclear activity could be if used as a weapon. Nuclear energy can melt down a devastate the localized area.

Thesis

Nations needs to weigh the pros and cons of nuclear activity before they start using it.

Anti-Nuclear Movement

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The Nuclear Movement showed people inisial hesitation of Nuclear activity because they didn’t understand it and how it could contain as much power as it does. During the cold war people were scared of the Soviet's nuclear weapons. Their fear was elevated dew to the cuban missile. Cuba had Soviet nuclear arms that could be launched into the U.S.. Cuba and the Soviet Union were allies because they both had communist governments. In Response Ronald Reagan oversaw a 1.5 trillion dollar budget to increase the armies strength this included a new set of nuclear weapons. Reagan said that in was necessary because of the number of nuclear weapons the Soviet’s had ”By the end of 1979, when Soviet leader Brezhnev declared "a balance now exists," the Soviets had over 800 warheads. We still had none. A year ago this month, Mr. Brezhnev pledged a moratorium, or freeze, on SS20 deployment. But by last August, their 800 warheads had become more than 1,200. We still had none. Some freeze. At this time Soviet Defense Minister Ustinov announced "approximate parity of forces continues to exist." But the Soviets are still adding an average of 3 new warheads a week, and now have 1,300. These warheads can reach their targets in a matter of a few minutes. We still have none. So far, it seems that the Soviet definition of parity is a box score of 1,300 to nothing, in their favor.” In a 1983 Gallup poll 40% of people that responded thought a nuclear war would occur within the next ten years. ABC broadcasted The Day After, it showed a dramatic setting of Kansas after a nuclear bomb hit. Critics said it was propaganda for the antinuclear movement. The Fate of the Earth by Jonathan Schell argued that nuclear war must be avoided at all costs not for just the current population but also for future generations. In June of 1982 the anti movement demonstrated its strength when half a million people got together in NYC. They didn’t want the U.S. to deploy Nuclear missiles in Western Europe in fear that it will make disarmament talks less likely to reach an agreement and more likely to lead to nuclear conflict. The government argued that it was the best way to counter the Soviet’s missiles in Eastern Europe. Some wanted a freeze of nuclear weapons testing, production, and deployment, this was called the Freeze Movement which was a subdivision of the antinuclear movement. Freeze propositions were approved in certain states. Reagan tried to make himself seem like an antinuclear activist by proposing the Strategic Defense Initiative also known as “Star Wars”. This plan involved building a shield in space to negate nuclear bombs effectiveness. Most were skeptical but it still achieved its purpose of making Reagan look like an antinuclear activist. Four years later Antinuclear activists tried to have another rally but they disappointed by the amount of people to show up. Their agenda seemed less urgent because power had changed hands in russia now the new leader seemed more interested in having peace between the U.S. and Russia. The Antinuclear Movement has claimed to reduce the risk of nuclear war. The movement made the government think about the rush for nuclear weapons and has decrease the number of nuclear weapons in comparison to before.


General Information about Nuclear Bombs

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The nuclear bombs power and existence is a game changer and the way it creates so much destruction is alarming. The nuclear bomb explodes above ground, the height depends on the strength of the bomb the stronger the bomb the high it is dropped from. The blast from the bomb creates a shock wave the spreads from the epicenter of the bomb. When the shock wave travels through air it is known as a blast wave which has winds stronger that a hurricane. The heat creates a fireball that spreads thermal radiation causing flash burns which burn bare skin but clothes can stop the thermal radiation. The radiation can penetrate deep so it is difficult to be shielded from. Radiation is one of the deadly parts of a nuclear bomb. If a half of the U.S. and Russia’s nuclear warhead exploded the dust thrown up into the can cause a nuclear winter. This power has the power to end all life as we know it.

The Nuclear Bombs Dropped on Japan

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Japan’s experience with nuclear bombs gave the movement even more evidence of the dangers of nuclear war. Nuclear bombs became a major concern after the two atomic bombs were dropped on Japan. The bombs dropped created a fireball, shock waves, and air blasts. The bombs left behind radiation the dramatically affected the general population. A half hour after the bomb dropped Black Rain fell, when black rain is sticky black radioactive water. Black Rain stained skin, clothes, and buildings. When people ingested black rain through breathing, or by being consumed through food and water which cause radiation poison. The radiation close to ground zero was enough to kill people immediately. In Hiroshima the estimated death toll was 130,000 and in Nagasaki the death toll was 60,000-70,000. The other around the bomb got terribly disfigured like Nakayama Shiro from Impact “I hated for people to stare at me…. Yet, every nerve in my body was attuned to the outside world; and to avoid even the slightest sinister look, I walked with a rigid on-guard posture…. Even so, I secluded myself at home and spent hours before the mirror, looking at my own face. What I saw was ugly hunks of flesh, like lava oozing from a crater wall, covering the left half of my face, with the eyebrow burned off and my eye pulled out of shape. My neck was pulled over to one side, and however much I tried to straighten it out, it wouldn't move back to the normal position.” This disfiguring not only made his appearance never fit in but in mental scarred him by making it so he always thinking people are looking at him like he is a freak. This made the facts of the bombs censored in Japan to make sure they didn’t scare their citizens at the thought that about 200,000 of their people could disappear from only 2 bombs. The bombs showed not just japan but the entire world the dangers of nuclear warfare.

Nuclear Meltdown in Fukushima

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In Fukushima, Japan an earthquake hit which was followed by a tsunami this caused the nuclear power plant to suffer a meltdown. The meltdown has lead to people to wondering the safety of Nuclear power plants and their protocols effectiveness. The meltdown was the result of two external problems that happened in rapid succession. Four large explosions gave off radioactive smoke, and evaporated seawater that was cooling the reactor. The Austrian Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) calculated that during that time it leaked 360-390 PBq of iodine-131 and 50 PBq of caesium-137. The Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) found that around 16,700 PBq of xenon- 133 250% of the amount released at Chernobyl were emitted by the Fukushima power plant. The plant released caesium-134, barium-140, tellurium-127m, tellurium-129m, tellurium-131m, tellurium-132, ruthenium-103, ruthenium-106, zirconium-95, cerium- 141, cerium-144, neptunium-239, yttrium-91, praseodymium-143, neodymium-147, curium-242, iodine-132, iodine-133, iodine-135, antimony-127, antimony-129 and molybdenum-99. The radiation was carried away in clouds and mostly release above the North Pacific Ocean. Some of the radiation rain on the Eastern Honshu Islands. This is cause people to see that even though we are more advanced now we still can have problems.

Conclusion

Nuclear activity isn’t something that should be taken lightly. The Anti-Nuclear Movement Showed how people fear the power and problems with nuclear activity. The bombs dropped on Japan demonstrated the power and lethality of nuclear bombs. The bombs greatly affected the mental health of those who saw or were near the bombs epicenter. The more we realized about the Nuclear activity the deadlier it becomes. Fukushima showed the devastation nuclear meltdown can cause with not only the direct area but further areas. Nuclear activity shouldn’t be taken lightly.

SEE THE EFFECTS OF A NUCLEAR BOMB


Citations


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