Alaina Duley

Background


When Abraham Lincoln was president in 1861, he knew that slavery was bad. He issued the Emancipation Proclamation that said “that as of January 1, 1863, all slaves in the rebellious states ‘shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free.’” (Emancipation Proclamation). Although it didn’t work, the Emancipation Proclamation was an important turning point of the Civil War. Instead of fighting to preserve the nation, people fought for human freedom and equality. 100 years after the Emancipation Proclamation, African Americans still weren't allowed to vote, they faced segregation and violence. The Jim Crow laws kept African Americans out of classrooms, bathrooms, theaters, train cars, juries and legislatures that were full of white people. In 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court started the “separate but equal” belief which formed the grounds for state-sanctioned discrimination which led to the realization of African American’s terrible situation. (Civil Rights Movement)
The Civil Rights Movement was a movement for African Americans to make sure they got equal rights. It became a really big deal in the 1950s-60s. There has been problems for African Americans for a very long time in America. After the Civil War, slavery was abolished. Blacks obtained equal rights when the 14th and 15th Amendments were passed. The Fourteenth Amendment granted citizenship to everyone who was born in the United States and said that no state could not deny anybody of life, liberty, or property "without due process of law" no matter what color they were (The American Vision). The Fifteenth Amendment said that everyone has the right to vote.

Thesis

Without the events that happened such as the Montgomery Bus Movement and the March on Washington and the important civil rights activists including Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King Jr., life for African Americans now would be very different.

The Niagara Movement


The Niagara Movement was organized by W.E.B Du Bois and William Monroe Trotter in 1905. The civil rights group wasn’t allowed to stay in hotels in Buffalo, New York - or anywhere in the U.S. - so they met on the Canadian side of Niagara Falls. They tried to bring out legal change, addressing the issues of crime, economics, religion, health, and education. They demanded an end to segregation and support for equal rights. The group continued until 1908 when a race riot broke out in Springfield, Illinois. Eight black people were killed and over 2,000 African Americans fled the city. “It was the first northern race riot in four decades and because it was in the hometown of Abraham Lincoln, black and white activists, including members of the Niagara Movement, felt a new more powerful, interracial organization was now needed to combat racism.” The NAACP was formed out of this concern. (Christensen, Stephanie. Niagara Movement 1905-1909)

NAACP
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This Day In Black History: May 31, 1909 http://www.bet.com/news/national/2013/05/31/this-day-in-black-history-may-31-1909.html


The NAACP was an organization formed in 1909 by Moorfield Storey, Mary White Ovington and W.E.B Du Bois. NAACP stands for “National Association for the Advancement of Colored People". It is the largest and oldest civil rights organization in the United States. It’s purpose was to eliminate segregation and discrimination so that everyone had equal rights. To make white people realize that racial equality is extremely important, the NAACP made speeches and did other things to make the issue public. They even made their own magazine, Crisis. Crisis talks about history, civil rights, politics and culture. It is meant to educate readers about the problems that African Americans face. The NAACP also attacked segregation and racial inequality through the courts (NAACP). They won and Supreme Court decision in 1915 against the law that kept black people from voting in southern states. Today, the NAACP has about 425,000 members, one of which was Martin Luther King Jr.

Martin Luther King Jr.
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Martin Luther King Jr. Biography http://www.biography.com/people/martin-luther-king-jr-9365086


Martin Luther King Jr was a Civil Rights leader during the 1950s and 1960s. He was born on January 15, 1929, in Atlanta, Georgia. He was so smart that while attending Booker T. Washington High School, he skipped 9th grade and 11th grade. On January 10, 1957 the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) was created. 60 black ministers and civil rights leaders met in Atlanta, Georgia to try to replicate the strategy and tactics of the Montgomery Bus Boycott. MLK Jr was chosen to be the president of the group. The purpose of the SCLC was to get rid of segregation and end the disenfranchisement of black southerners in a non-violent way. In Albany, Georgia, December 1961, the SCLC began its first direct action campaign. They marched to protest segregation and discrimination. But, the campaign ended up failing due to lack of planning. Two years later they had their first victory campaign in Birmingham, Alabama. It lasted four months and is known as the Birmingham campaign. The Southern Christian Leadership Conference continued on after King was assassinated. Martin Luther King Jr.’s daughter, Bernice King
was chosen to be the next leader of the SCLC. (Southern Christian Leadership Conference)(Martin Luther King Jr. Biography)

Rosa Parks
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Rosa Parks Biography http://www.biography.com/people/rosa-parks-9433715
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King Made by the People http://www.isgeschiedenis.nl/archiefstukken/king-made-people/


Rosa Parks was a civil rights activist. She was born on February 4, 1913 in Alabama. She married a man named Raymond Parks who was a member of the NAACP in 1932. The Montgomery City Code said that all public transportation had to be segregated. Bus drivers had to assign separate, but equal seats to white and black people. The white people sat in the front and the black people sat in the back. If a lot of white people got on the bus, the bus driver had to ask black people to move further back or give up their seat. On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks refused
to give up her seat on the bus to a white man. As she was riding the bus, more white people were getting on the bus. The bus driver noticed that white people were standing in the isle and move the separation sign back a few more seats. Some people listened but Rosa Parks remained in her seat. The bus driver said “Why don’t you stand up?”. Rosa replied, “I don’t think I should have to stand up”. (Rosa Parks Biography) She was then arrested by the police and charged with violation of Chapter 6, section 11 of the Montgomery City Code. On the same night that Rosa Parks got arrested, E.D. Nixon, the head of the local chapter of the NAACP, formed plans to plan a boycott of Montgomery’s city buses. Black people were asked to not ride the city buses on December 5, 1955 in protest of her arrest. A group of African American community leaders went to the Mt. Zion Church in Montgomery. They formed the Montgomery Improvement Association. They elected Martin Luther King Jr. as minister of the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church. The MIA thought that Rosa Parks’ case provided a good opportunity to take further action to create real change. All of this came to be known as the Montgomery Bus Boycott. (Rosa Parks Biography)

March On Washington
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March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/March_on_Washington_for_Jobs_and_Freedom


In 1963 March on Washington was organized to promote civil rights and economic equality for blacks and was a turning point in history. They walked down roads such as Constitution Avenue and Independence Avenue and gathered at the Lincoln Monument to sing songs, give speeches and say prayers. At this time, Martin Luther King Jr. read his “I Have a Dream” speech. Some people recognized in the March on Washington are A. Philip Randolph, Whitney Young - president of the National Urban League (NUL), Roy Wilkins - president of the NAACP, James Farmer - president of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), John Lewis - president of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), and Martin Luther King Jr. - president and founder of the SCLC. The SNCC and CORE were trying to organize nonviolent protests against Jim Crow segregation and discrimination. Martin Luther King Jr. and his group, the SCLC, was trying to end segregation in Birmingham, Alabama. On August 28, 1963, the march began. More than 200,000 people had gathered at the Washington Monument by 11:00 AM. The group was made up of blacks, whites, rich people, poor people, young people, old people, famous people, and normal people. The March ended at 4:20 PM at the Lincoln Memorial.

John F. Kennedy
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John F. Kennedy Biography http://www.biography.com/people/john-f-kennedy-9362930#synopsis


John F. Kennedy was born on May 29, 1917, in Brookline, Massachusetts. When John F. Kennedy was elected for president in 1961, he made sure people knew that he was a supporter of civil rights. Although, helping the African Americans become equal was on the bottom of his list of things to do. He was more focused on improving health care and helping the lowest wage earners. What he did do for the African Americans was try to persuade federal government organizations to employ more black people. He also shut down the Washington Redskins’ football stadium until they signed African American players to their team. On November 22, 1963, JFK was shot by Lee Harvey Oswald from an upstairs window of the Texas School Book Depository building. Kennedy died at the Parkland Memorial Hospital because of two gunshot wounds.

Conclusion


"When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promise that all men, yes, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed the unalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness." (Martin Luther King Jr. "I Have a Dream Speech") Because of Rosa Parks sparking the Montgomery Bus Boycott and Martin Luther King Jr. starting the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, African Americans' rights have changed dramatically and they were all given equal rights.

For More Information

Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/civil-rights-act/
Racial Disturbances Against Blacks
http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/ovic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?failOverType=&query=&prodId=OVIC&windowstate=normal&contentModules=&display-query=&mode=view&displayGroupName=Reference&limiter=&u=mou18251&currPage=&disableHighlighting=false&displayGroups=&sortBy=&source=&search_within_results=&p=OVIC&action=e&catId=&activityType=&scanId=&documentId=GALE%7CBT2338231083&authCount=1


Works Cited


Appleby, Joyce Oldham. "Chapter 10: Reconstruction." The American Vision. New York: Glencoe McGraw-Hill, 2003. 361+. Print.
I used this textbook (my history textbook for class) to get the definitions of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments. I know the information in this book is right because Glencoe/McGraw-Hill is a well known company and this book is also written by National Geographic.

Biography.com Editors. "John F. Kennedy Biography." Bio.com. A&E Networks Television, n.d. Web. 28 Oct. 2015. <__http://www.biography.com/people/john-f-kennedy-9362930__>.
This information is current for my topic. The intended audience is for people who want to learn about JFK. The people who work at Biography.com wrote this information. At the end of the article, the website has citation information for people who need to cite the website. The purpose of this website is to inform people about John F. Kennedy which is why I used it for information to put in my research paper.

Biography.com Editors. "Martin Luther King Jr. Biography." The Biography.com Website. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 23 Oct. 2015. <__http://www.biography.com/people/martin-luther-king-jr-9365086#the-southern-christian-leadership-conference__>.
The information was published recently and the information is current. The intended audience for this website is for people who want to learn about Martin Luther King Jr. This website was the easiest to understand out of all of the other websites I looked at. This information is written by the people at Biography.com. At the end of the article there is the information needed for a citation for anyone who needs the website to be cited. A quote from the page is "We strive for accuracy and fairness. If you see something that doesn't look right, contact us!" From this, you can tell that they care about the information they give and they want it to be the best for people trying to learn. The purpose of this website is to inform people about Martin Luther King Jr. which is why I used this article to help write my paper.

Biography.com Editors. "Rosa Parks Biography." The Biography.com Website. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 21 Oct. 2015. <__http://www.biography.com/people/rosa-parks-9433715__>.
The information from this website is current. The intended audience is anyone who wants to learn about Rosa Parks. I used this website because I wanted to talk about Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott in my paper. A lot of other websites had the same information but this website was the easiest to understand. It is written by people who work at biography.com. Even though it is from a ".com" website, the information is right. At the end of the article, they cited the website for whoever needs a citation. The purpose of this website is to inform people about Rosa Parks and her life which is why I used it for my paper.

Cho, Nancy. "Southern Christian Leadership Conference (1957 - ) | The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed." Southern Christian Leadership Conference (1957 - ) | The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Oct. 2015. <__http://www.blackpast.org/aah/southern-christian-leadership-conference-1957__>.
The information from this website is current. The copyright is from 2007-2015. I used this website to get information about the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. The intended audience is probably for people in high school and older. This information comes from a ".org" website so they most likely know what they are talking about. A contributor to this article is Nancy Cho. She is a student at the University of Washington. There are a lot of links in the article so you can click on them and learn more about the topic. The purpose of this website is to inform you about the SCLC.

Christensen, Stephanie. "Niagara Movement (1905-1909)." Blackpast.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2015. <__http://www.blackpast.org/aah/niagara-movement-1905-1909__>.
This information is current for my topic. The intended audience is for people who want to learn about the Niagara Movement. The information is pretty much the same on this website as it is on other websites that I looked at. A contributor to this article is Stephanie Christensen. She graduated from the University of Washington in 2008. This website has citations at the end to show the reader where they got their information from. The purpose of this website is to inform people about the Niagara Movement which is why I used it for information to put in my research paper.

"Civil Rights Movement." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 30 Oct. 2015. <__http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/civil-rights-movement__>.
This information comes from history.com. The intended audience is for people 8th grade and up. The purpose of this website is to give the reader an overview of the civil rights movement. The article has different sections for different events that happened such as the Montgomery Bus Boycott and the March On Washington.

"Emancipation Proclamation." N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2015. <__http://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/emancipation-proclamation__>.
This website is written by the people at History.com. I used this website to get information about the Emancipation Proclamation to put in my introduction paragraph. The information is up to date. The purpose of this website is to inform people who want to learn about the Emancipation Proclamation. The intended audience is for 8th grade and up.

Foner, Eric, and John A. Garraty. "NAACP." History.com. N.p., 1991. Web. 24 Oct. 2015. <__http://www.history.com/topics/naacp__>.
This information is a little old, but nothing major has happened with the NAACP since the civil rights movement so the website doesn't need to be updated. The intended audience for this website is people who want to learn about the NAACP. This information comes from people who work at History.com. The purpose of this article is to inform people about the NAACP which is why I used it for information in my research paper.

"March on Washington." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 30 Oct. 2015. <__http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/march-on-washington__>.
The information is current for my topic. The intended audience is for people 8th grade and up. This information comes from history.com. They post a lot of websites about a lot of different things. There aren't any spelling mistakes or grammatical errors. The purpose of this website is to inform people about the March on Washington.

"Martin Luther King's I Have a Dream Speech August 28 1963." N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2015. <__http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/documents/1951-/martin-luther-kings-i-have-a-dream-speech-august-28-1963.php__>.
I used this website because I wanted to use a quote from Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have A Dream" speech. I know the information is right because it is only his speech in the text and his speech was written down word for word and nobody would mess that up.

N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2015. <__http://www.thecrisismagazine.com/__>.
I used this site to give me more information about what Crisis Magazine was about.

Ross, Shmuel. "Civil Rights March On Washington." Infoplease. Infoplease, n.d. Web. 30 Oct. 2015. <__http://www.infoplease.com/spot/marchonwashington.html__>.
This website is current because it was published in 2000. The intended audience is for people in 8th grade and up. The information comes from a company called infoplease. There is contact information on the website. The purpose of this website is to inform people about the March on Washington that happened on August 28, 1963.

Picture of Martin Luther King Jr. - http://www.biography.com/people/martin-luther-king-jr-9365086
Picture of NAACP - http://www.bet.com/news/national/2013/05/31/this-day-in-black-history-may-31-1909.html
Picture of Rosa Parks - http://www.biography.com/people/rosa-parks-9433715
Picture of John F. Kennedy - http://www.biography.com/people/john-f-kennedy-9362930