Remmington Berzinis-McLaughlin














Introduction

The African American Civil Rights Movement began in 1955 and lasted till 1968. On December 1st, 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama the African American citizens chose to [[#|[[#|[[#|[[#|[[#|[[#|start]]]]]]]]]]]] a boycott on the city buses until they were allowed to sit anywhere on the bus, this was started by Rosa Parks. The Civil Rights are important and we [[#|needed]] the civil right to happen to make this country the way it is today. There have been prior noticed incidences in which blacks were denied seating. Irene Morgan in 1946, Sarah Louise Keys in 1955, Jo Ann Robinson in 1949, and Vernon Johns in the early 1950s, some of which had attempted to start movements themselves but lacked support. Shortly after Rosa Park's [[#|arrest]] the support [[#|finally]] came, he [[#|people]] of Montgomery grew fed up with with the Alabama segregation laws and started boycotting the city buses (The Montgomery Bus Boycott, Rosa Parks: [[#|Wikipedia]]).
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Mirrors behind a lunch counter


Thesis

How were the sit-ins and bus boycotts a contributing factor in the civil rights movements?

Sit-ins

Sit-ins are peaceful and organized protests, where demonstrators occupy seats that they are not permitted to sit in, in restaurants and other public places. Sit-ins became more publicly known when on February 1, 1960, four black college [[#|[[#|students]]]] from North Carolina A&T University sat down at the Woolworth’s [[#|lunch]] counter in Greensboro North Carolina, and were denied service. This peaceful way of protesting caused other other colleges to join and start their own sit-ins. Due to the sit-ins [[#|Shaw University]] created the The [[#|Student]] Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, or SNCC. On the second day about sixteen more students from A&T participated in the sit-in with the original four. By the time the third day rolled around 63 of the 65 lunch counter seats where occupied along with students spreading to other stored like S.H. Kress [[#|department store]]. On the fourth, three white [[#|female]] students from what was then called Woman’s College now called The [[#|University of]] North Carolina at Greensboro. In 1937, students from A&T to protest the deleting of scenes from a film that have African Americans on the screen. They didn’t let up until they received a concert from a African American jazz player.
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The four students sitting at the lunch counter which was on the cover of the newspaper the following day.














Hopes and goals of The Civil Rights Movement

The Civil Rights Movement had hoped to accomplish access to all public accommodations, decent housing, adequate and integrated education, the right to vote, and to be free of racial discrimination from the whites. The reason that this was important was because, without it the African American citizens would still be held as a thought of as lesser to the white man, with constant suppression and lack of equal abilities the African [[#|American community]] may have turned to violence and start riots or used other forms of non peaceful protest, or they may just refuse to work and go on strike.
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Many different events happened throughout the civil rights era (1954-68)







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Rosa Park sitting on the bus the day the city's segregation ban took effect.

Many different events happened throughout the civil rights era (1954-68)

Bus Boycotts

The Bus Boycotts were the part of the kickstart that caused the [[#|black population]] to start standing up for themselves in a way that they hadn’t before. After one month the sit-ins had taken place in over thirty [[#|locations]] and seven states. In 1961 (CORE) The Congress of Racial Equality Started organizing Freedom Rides throughout the south to try out the newly non-segregate interstate public bus system.
The Civil Rights Movement has impacted America in [[#|multiple ways]]. We have abolished segregation at [[#|schools]], restaurants, bathrooms, and any other [[#|form]] of public facility. It is has allowed African Americans to get equal paying [[#|[[#|[[#|[[#|jobs]]]]]]]] and legislative jobs and it made blacks feel better. The different movements had spread quickly throughout the south because of the country wide suppression.
Sit-ins were a strong reinforcement after the bus boycotting had started. They had given the African Americans better housing and [[#|higher]] pay and that has helped them have happier and healthier lives. The different movements had spread quickly throughout the south because of the country wide suppression. In the end a lot was accomplished and the country has been a more friendly and less segregated place.
On December 1, 1955 Rosa Parks was told to move to the back of the bus after the white section of the bus had been filled and the white people needed a place to sit. She had refused to leave her seat. Once the NAACP(National Association for the Advancement of Colored People ) and other African American activists heard about Parks arrest they immediately called for a bus boycott to be held on December 5th. The word traveled by fliers and by word of mouth. The boycott lasted more than a year, the people who participated had to either carpool or walk wherever they had to go, so people had to walk miles each day to get to school or work. Once the boycott began the Montgomery bus system lost about 70 percent or its riders, this took a heavy toll on the company financially. November 13, 1956, was when the U.S. Supreme Court said the Montgomery city bus segregation laws where a violation of the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment. On December 20, Martin Luther King Jr. said "The year old protest against city buses is officially called off, and the Negro citizens of Montgomery are urged to return to the buses tomorrow morning on a non-segregated basis." The boycott had ended the next day, and Rosa Parks was one of the first to ride the new buses.
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Martin Luther King Giving his speech

Making some change

The Civil Rights movement had changed the political tone. In 1963 planing for The March On Washington had begun with Black leaders from all over the country pitching in to help organize it. The March was specifically design to help get the Civil Rights Act to pass in congress which at the time had been stalled. The march had been a great success, over 200,000 white and black American had attended there were songs and speeches along with prayer from the civil rights leaders, politicians and, entertainers. There where speeches and performances from performers such as Mahalia Jackson, John Lewis, Joan Baez, Josephine Baker, and Bob Dylan.Martin Luther King’s speech “I Have a Dream” became a high point and expression of the civil rights movement. The March on Washington of 1963 was followed by years of being put down and disregarded. Nevertheless, the march represented hope, and the belief in the democratic process, and that African Americans and the whites could get along and work together.